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1819 Aug. 11

Fallacies. Preface — Hamilton


3. — By Substitution.

1. 32 Aph. 429. In order to attack what others have said, or
to defend what you have said, either omit a word or add
one; or else change one word for another, a little softer or
stronger, as may suit your purpose.

2. 34. Aph. 444. If you can not answer the thing as your
adversary states it, see how small an alteration in that
statement will enable you to answer it.

4. By Insinuation.

22. Aph. 254, It has often a finer effect in debate, to insinuate
than to assert a thing, and especially in matters of reproach
and censure; in which case, it is attended with the
advantage, that you are less liable to an attack. Apply
this to Lord .

7. Aph. 158. You may avoid an answer to objection by
raising other objections.

II. Candour warned against: Disingenuousness and
sham-Candour recommended.

4. Aph. 90. It is candid to allow weight in an objection,
but not prudent, unless you can afterwards answer it.

2. Aph. 61. If you have no argument to object to, object
to a word. Do not assent to any thing on appearances
or on slight grounds, and much less on none.

14. Aph. 216. As people are too apt to admit facts without
examining, so they are too apt to deny charges, many of
which may be safely admitted, and then either ridiculed
or explained away.

20. Aph. 243. When the question you are to support is a bad
one, be particularly careful to watch till somebody on the
other side has put their argument* on a wrong and weak
ground (which generally happens) and then apply what
you say, not to the question, but to the argument.

Editor's Note.

  • i.e. the argument of the other side or party.

39. Aph. 526. State with the air of candid admission,
as the strongest part of the argument against you, what
you are sure you can answer.

III. Evasion and Craft recommended.

7. Aph. 158. You may evade an answer to objections,
by raising other objections.

3 Aph. 69. When you can not resist, then wit, fancy,
subtlety, and craft are of service.

Identifier: | JB/104/033/001
"JB/" can not be assigned to a declared number type with value 104.



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by substitution / by insinuation / candour / evasion and craft recommended


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