valve were obliged to be raised, before any of the air could escape;
& before any and the like, before any new air could enter the cistern from without.
The Chimney is made to incline forward, for two reasons; first, to
heat the smoke better as it ascends; & next, to heat the great air cistern
better. – The great object is to let no heat be lost to useless
walls or other bodies; therefore
As the area of the building within is considerable, the chimneys
might pass within the area & never touch the outer parts of the
building, till they reached the roof.
Heat thus is given in 3 ways: 1st directly from the grate, as in common supposing the air sufficiently pure;
2d far more powerfully by the air cisterns; 3d from the retreating smoke.
These large grates will be wanted for cookery; but as it is useless
for the cooks when they are to receive attend only one part of
the fire at a time, to be incommoded by the heat of the whole of it, a pendulous screen
might be dropped when wanted from the ceiling, to fall at right
right angles to the fire, & screen the person from the more distant parts of the fire.
The other smaller fires to be used in the lodge & under coppers might yield almost all
their heat to the building, on one or other of the above principles.
The cisterns should have their sides formed of stone at least below & some way up;
in order to have them strong, thin, with little mortar, & of a material not to contaminate
the air they are to heat. Where they curve, bricks may be used.
When no cookery is going
forwards, air cisterns
might be placed in front
of the grates.
In summer at the moment of
cooking, it would be easy in
various ways to be without the
Air holes should
be applied to
the grates, to be
stopped at pleasure,
which while they
acted, would serve
as bellows, & prevent
the withdrawing of
any heated air already
The Chimneys to be
as small as possible,
to take away as little
as possible of the heated
air. It would be easy
to clean them without
boys entering them.
The distribution of
the air & chimneys must
depend on the nature &
form of the other parts
of the building.
The Grates to be back to back (with the air cistern only intervening,) to be able to save
all the heat, & losing none to a dead wall for example.
The great air cistern to be divided into two; that half may be heated at a time, by the
correspondg halves of each grate.
The four smaller air-cisterns take in the ends of the grates, which is no trifle.
Whether the two great portions of the great air cistern should be divided into serpentine
flues, is matter of experiment? I should hope it would be needless, provided a loaded
Identifier: | JB/119/045/001
"JB/" can not be assigned to a declared number type with value 119.
copy/fair copy sheet
[[watermarks::gr [crown motif] [quartered arms motif]]]